Chi BH, Mudenda V, Levy J, Sinkala M, Goldenberg RL, Stringer JSA
This study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of acute and chronic chorioamnionitis among women infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and to determine the relative contribution of each to perinatal HIV-1 transmission.
In 227 HIV-infected women receiving intrapartum/neonatal nevirapine prophylaxis, we examined associations between fetal membrane histology, cord blood interleukin-6 (IL-6), and perinatal HIV-1 transmission.
Acute chorioamnionitis was present in 122 of 227 specimens; chronic chorioamnionitis in 64 of 227. There was a positive correlation between acute chorioamnionitis and labor length (r = 0.208; P = .002), time of ruptured membrane (r = 0.177; P = .008), and cord IL-6 (r = 0.390; P < .001). Chronic chorioamnionitis was associated with high viral load (P = .05) and low cord IL-6 (P < .001). Severe chronic chorioamnionitis was associated with intrauterine HIV-1 transmission (odds ratio [OR] = 7.61; 95% CI = 1.04-85.5), but no correlation was demonstrated between acute chorioamnionitis and vertical transmission.
In a setting of high perinatal nevirapine use, acute chorioamnionitis was not associated with vertical HIV-1 transmission. Risk for intrauterine transmission increased significantly when chronic chorioamnionitis was present.