Addition of single-dose tenofovir and emtricitabine to intrapartum nevirapine to reduce perinatal HIV transmission


Chi BH, Chintu N, Cantrell RA, Kankasa C, Kruse G, Mbewe F, Sinkala M, Smith PJ, Stringer EM, Stringer JSA


J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008; 28:220-3


To determine the impact of adjuvant single-dose peripartum tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) on intrapartum/early postpartum HIV transmission.


In the setting of routine short-course zidovudine (ZDV) and peripartum nevirapine (NVP) for perinatal HIV prevention, participants were randomized to single-dose TDF (300 mg)/FTC (200 mg) or to no intervention in labor. Six-week infant HIV infection was compared according to actual-use drug regimens.


Of 397 women randomized, 355 (89%) had infants who were alive and active at 6 weeks postpartum. Of these, 18 (5.1%) were infected in utero and 6 (1.8%) were infected intrapartum/early postpartum. Among the 243 who used ZDV and NVP, intrapartum/early postpartum transmission was not reduced among infants whose mothers received TDF/FTC compared with those who did not (2 of 123 [1.6%] vs. 3 of 109 [2.8%]; P = 0.67). Among the 49 infants whose mothers did not receive antenatal ZDV but who had confirmed NVP ingestion, transmission similarly did not differ (0 of 19 [0%] vs. 1 of 26 [3.4%]). TDF/FTC was not significantly associated with reduced overall transmission (odds ratio [OR] = 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.3 to 1.6), even when other antiretroviral drugs were considered (adjusted OR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.3 to 1.8).


Adjuvant peripartum single-dose TDF/FTC did not reduce perinatal transmission. Whether a higher dose might be effective remains unknown but should be studied in settings in which NVP is used without antenatal ZDV.

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